India is the vast country having huge potential. It is the country blessed with 60 % young population. But due to the current international scenario and domestic conditions India has to face some immediate challenges.
India is the one of the most populous country in the world. Almost 16% of the world population live in India. We will be overtaking China in population by 2035 as the world’s most populous country. India is still one of the poorest countries in the world. The poverty in India is absolute poverty i.e. India is poor in every aspect of life money, food, education, health, malnutrition etc.
The main challenge will always be the widening gap between rich and poor or inequality of income distribution. This gap threatens our social fabric.
The share of agriculture in National Income has come down rapidly but the proportion of the population dependent on agriculture remains more or less at the same level. Providing gainful employment to rural population is uphill task. There is also wide gap between the incomes of farmers across the country. Region specific planning in agriculture is needed for inclusive development and the main focus will be on bridging the widening gap between the incomes of the various regions.
India is presently struggling with the economic growth of below or at 5 %. So the immediate challenge is to revive the economy. The major constraints are strained public finances, high inflation rate, high Interest rates and rising bad loans due to slow down in economy. Bad loans of banks stifled credit outflow to corporate. Stressed/bad loans in the country are accounting for 10% of the loans and are equal to $100 billion.
But I also fill the following are the major hurdle blocks in development of our country.
The major challenges are
Terrorism means any intentional act of violence that causes death, injury or property damage, induces fear, and is targeted against any group of people identified by their political, philosophical, ideological, racial, ethnic, religious or any other nature. Terrorism is a disease, which has created havoc in India. Few organizations/outfits allure the youth to become terrorist in name of religion or money. Illiteracy poor living standards, unemployment frustration poverty force people to take wrong path and adopt illegal methods to earn money. They have not a particular goal of their one and only goal is to divide humanity.
Issue of illegal immigrants.
An illegal immigrant in India is a person residing in the country without an official permission as prescribed by relevant Indian law. The far eastern states of India are facing major problem of illegal immigrants from Bangla Desh due to civil war, poverty and unemployment. The influx is so alarming that changed the social fabric of the region. So the agitation against this was started long back in 1978 in Assam when the students movement started the Assam Gana Parishad for son of soil. The illegal immigrants are now threat to national security and are spreading fast in neighbouring states of Meghalaya, Manipur and Mizoram. Even in Mumbai that is in far West, the state govt. has to take the stern majors against the Bangla Deshis who are living in shanties ( zopadpatti ) and has created Law and order problem. So the GOM has started arresting and deporting them to their home land. The crime rate in the areas where these illegal immigrants stays is very high.
It means strict adherence to ones religious belief. There is unholy nexus between religion and politics. Indian secularism is today under severe threat – threatened by communal forces which are spreading their ideology of hate at the grassroot level, even among children including various state apparatuses such as the bureaucracy, police, media, the education system and the judiciary. Fundamentalist exploit the poverty, illiteracy and frustration of the people to force upon their ideas on the peoples mind. This a grave threat to our country as our country already witness one partition on lines of religion and we should be utmost careful for handling such kind of issues.
It means delay in the completion of work and purposely creating some hurdles in completion of work. It normally involves excessive regulations, large and avoidable paper work etc. So to get the procedures completed early people resort to bribing the officials. This is one of the main social evil as it delays the completion of formalities of projects which result in cost overrun. The cost overrun is ultimately a burden on citizens.
Favouritism (nepotism, preferential treatments)
Nepotism means patronage bestowed or favouritism showed on the basis of family, relationship in business or politics. The nepotism results into substandard work, artificially increasing the cost of the project so as to benefit a particular person. This hampers the growth. While allotting contracts and projects strict rules and strict quality control measures should be adhered to.
Reviving the economy and maintaining the economic growth around 8%
Unemployment means lack of earning opportunities. The abnormal rise in population created this problem. The main characteristics of unemployment in India are :
- The incidence of unemployment is much higher in urban areas than in rural areas.
- Unemployment rates for women are higher than those for men.
- The incidence of unemployment among the educated is much higher than the overall unemployment.
- There is greater unemployment in agricultural sector than in industrial and other major sectors. The unemployment in agricultural sector is normally the underemployment as the people are not employed for full year and it is seasonal employment.
Here are some of the reasons why there is unemployment in India
There are employment opportunities in India, but the rising population problem creates the unemployment.
Indians don’t take jobs which are below their grades. Many find it difficult to work at the below qualification level job.
Low wages or salary below the market rate.
Many big industries look for the skilled candidate only, for their company.
Many Employers give preference to the experienced candidates only and not the fresher.
Slow business expansion
Advanced Technology: Earlier for a task hundreds or thousand people were required to do a work but now due to the advanced technology only one person can do many people’s work. With the advanced technology companies are hiring few persons to operate the machine. Give a command on computer and the work is done this has cut off the employment of many.
The only answer is the economic development by developing the production activity and service sector. Reduction in population growth will also help in easing the problem.
Energy / Power Crisis
The supply of energy is far lesser than the demand for the energy, which hampers the speed of the development of the country.
There are several reasons behind the energy crises or shortage of electrical energy in India. Some of very crucial factors are being discussed here :
Sharp Increase in Demand : Being a fast developing country the number of industries and other sector power demand is increased very rapidly. The number of companies are multiplying each year and the power demand is increasing very fast. This is the most serious matter to match production of electricity with the demand.
- Poor Utilization of Electrical Equipments : Apart from insufficient power supply the power which is being supplies is not utilized properly. Around 30-40% power is wasted due to low power factor and this is very important point to be considered because if we can save that 30 % we have to produce less electricity as that wastage can serve the purpose.
- High Transmission Losses : In India the efficiency of electrical equipments used in Power transmission and distribution like transformers and other equipments is very poor as compare to developed countries. So here is a chance to save power.
- Power Theft : The biggest thread to the economy of nation is the theft of its resources. Due to importance of power, it is considered as one among the crucial resource but this is stolen by some people and this has to be stopped.
- Delay in Commissioning of Power Project : Due to non availability of funds power project are delayed in India and sometimes some political problems are also faced. This delays the project and hence increases the supply vs demand ratio.
- Shortage of Coal : Coal is not available at power generating locations like thermal power plants on time and this delays the power generation.
- Faulty Planning and Plant Outages : The planning in Indian power industry is of 20 years behind the time. People in industry are planning what developed countries planned 20 years ago.
Conservation of Natural Resources
India as country is blessed with rich natural resources. But the resources are depleting every day. Forest and arable land is being depleted due to urbanization, overpopulation and overconsumption. Wild life resources are being lost due to illegal poaching, hunting and industrialization. Water resources are being contaminated are drying up due to industrialization. Etc. The following factors are major threats to erosion of our natural wealth Urbanisation and Industrialisation, Overpopulation, Overconsumption and irresponsible use, Deforestation, Natural Calamities, Pollution of water etc. Conservation is the proper management of a natural resource to prevent its exploitation, destruction or degradation.
The making of India’s growth more inclusive by reducing poverty is principal challenge. Inclusive growth means equitable opportunities for all section of society participants during the process of economic growth with benefits incurred by every section of society. It means the structural transformation in society. The growth is pro poor only if the incomes of poor people grow faster than the population as a whole. In Inclusive growth the poor people should also benefit in absolute terms. In inclusive growth all the section of the society gets the benefit of good food, education, medication and other social benefits at reasonable rate.
It implies to equal treatment to all religions. By the 42nd amendment in 1976 the Preamble to the Constitution asserted that India is secular country. The secular fabric of the country is under threat due to following.
Polarisation on the basis of religion/caste : There is unholy nexus between religion and politics. For the petty gains in elections the politicians take the fundamentalists help for votes and starts appeasement of particular community of religion and caste basis. This help the fundamentalists organisation to strengthen their network among the community. This creates divide amongst the people on caste / religion basis.
Issue of old worship places : After the Ram Mandir Movement and demolition of Babri Masjid the issue of old worship places like Kashi and Mathura came into limelight. The Ram Mandir Movement bring the radical right wing BJP near to corridors of power and they form the govt. In 1999 and now in 2014 also they are in power. This creates the fear amongst the minority that they may rake of up the issue of old worship places to consolidate their gains.
Appeasement : For shorter political gains the parties some times announce some extra privileges to particular community ( reservations for Muslims and Marathas on the eve of Maharashtra election by Congress and NCP govt.) which creates rift among the people on religious and caste basis.
As per UNICEF malnutrition is more common in India than in Africa. One in every three malnourished children in the world lives in India. Malnutrition limits development and the capacity to learn. It also costs lives: about 50 per cent of all childhood deaths are attributed to malnutrition. In India, around 46 per cent of all children below the age of three are too small for their age, 47 per cent are underweight and at least 16 per cent are wasted. Many of these children are severely malnourished. Malnourished children are less likely to perform well in school and more likely to grow into malnourished adults, at greater risk of disease and early death. Around one-third of all adult women are underweight. Inadequate care of women and girls, especially during pregnancy, results in low- birth weight babies. The malnourishment can only be removed by spreading education, removing poverty. Malnutrition is also rising among the rich class due to fast foods, junk foods etc.
Brain drain is one of the main obstacle in fast development of India. It means that the workforce ( skilled and unskilled ) emigrates from the country to the rich countries especially to US, Europe, Australia, Canada etc. in search of better job opportunities, higher education and living conditions. When the expatriates are going abroad in search of greener pastures, India has been losing its major skilled workforce that includes doctors, engineers, scientists and technicians. The real reason for brain drain lies in political and economical situation of the country. The government should be sensitive enough to problems of skilled and educated youth so that he retained in the country. Conducive situation and atmosphere should be created for businesses and job opportunities.
During the Cold War, India adopted a foreign policy of not aligning itself with any major power bloc. However, India developed close ties with the Soviet Union and received extensive military support from it.
The end of the Cold War significantly affected India's foreign policy, as it did for much of the world. The country now seeks to strengthen its diplomatic and economic ties with the United States, the People's Republic of China, the European Union, Japan, Israel, Mexico, and Brazil. India has also forged close ties with the member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the African Union, the Arab League and Iran.
Though India continues to have a military relationship with Russia, Israel has emerged as India's second largest military partner while India has built a strong strategic partnership with the United States. The foreign policy of present government indicated a shift towards focusing on the Asian region and, more broadly, trade deals.
Improving relations with immediate neighbours would be priority as peace and tranquillity in South Asia is essential for realizing development agenda of present government.
Bilateral trade going to dominate the relations with most countries except few important global powers with which India shares a strategic partnership.
BRICS : BRICS is the acronym for an association of five major emerging national economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa. The BRICS members are all developing or newly industrialised countries, but they are distinguished by their large, fast-growing economies and significant influence on regional and global affairs; all five are G-20 members. As of 2014, the five BRICS countries represent almost 3 billion people which is 40% of the world population, with a combined nominal GDP of US$16.039 trillion (20% world GDP) and an estimated US$4 trillion in combined foreign reserves. As of 2014, the BRICS nations represented 18 percent of the world economy. Brazil held the chair of the BRICS group in 2014, having hosted the group's sixth summit in 2014. Setting up of BRICS Bank is the major achievement of 2014 summit at Brazil.
India cannot afford hostility in the Pakistan. India want to pursue peace with Pakistan at the same time we have to fight with Pak sponsored terrorism and unwanted firing at some section of the border. China is more active than India in influencing the policies and political direction in the region. Indian china relations are stressed due to Chinese advancements in Arunachal Pradesh and Ladakh regions. Now the India’s relations with the West Asian countries are at lowest level. India has to regain its relevance in strife-torn West Asia. India has to revive his relations with Iran and Russia. Bangladesh feels let down by India on Teesta River accord and land boundry agreement. Indian stand should be firm in dealing with US, because US always protect their business and political interest and if they see any harm in that they immediately use pressure tactics such as sanctions against the country. India should be very careful and should be very firm on the stand it takes with the US.
Interstate relations / disputes
Centre / State relations, maintaining the federal structure of country. In a federal set up there is a two tier of Government with well assigned powers and functions. The central government and the governments of the states act within a well defined sphere, co-ordinate and at the same time act independently. The federal polity, in other words, provides a constitutional frame work for bringing unity in diversity and for the achievement of common national goals.
Another very important feature of a federal structure is an independent judiciary to interpret the Constitution and to maintain its sanctity. The Supreme Court of India has the original jurisdiction to settle disputes between the Union and the States. It can declare a law as unconstitutional, if it contravenes any provision of the Constitution.But the states fill that their powers are curtail by the Centre Govt. Via Governor. The Centre appoints the Governors of the States and may take over the administration of the State on the recommendations of the Governor or otherwise. In other words, Governor is the agent of the Centre in the States. The working of Indian federal system clearly reveals that the Governor has acted more as centre’s representative than as the head of the State. This enables the Union government to exercise control over the State administration.